0151 792 6245

Open Mon-Fri 8.30 to 5pm

Advice Uncategorized

Understanding boiler specifications

A confused womanNeed help understanding boiler specifications?

When you’re shopping for a new boiler, it can be hard to know where to start.

If you’ve taken your boiler search online, you were probably surprised by how much choice there is!

Although boilers essentially do the same job of keeping your home warm, and your baths hot, there’s a vast array of different makes and models to choose from.

And although boilers might all look very similar (to the untrained eye!) – don’t be fooled – not all boilers are created equal!

To find the most cost-effective and efficient way to heat your home, you need to make an informed decision, not one based solely on aesthetics or price.

This is where boiler specifications come in. The technical information found in a boiler specification is important. It will help you to find the most cost-effective and efficient way to heat your home.

But what does it all mean?!

The facts, figures, and general jargon contained in a boiler specification can be confusing. So, we’ve put together this handy guide to help you  understand what you’re looking at.

The three types of boilers

Diagram of the 3 types of boiler.Before we get into the nitty gritty, let’s start with the types of boilers that are available.

There are three main types of boilers for you to choose from: combi boilers; system boilers; and heat-only boilers. Since they all work differently, you’ll come across slightly different boiler specifications for each.

We’ve dedicated entire blogs to each of these boiler types, but we’ll summarise the key differences again here:

Combi boilers

Combination or ‘combi’ boiler is the most common type of domestic boiler in the UK. They provide a combination (hence the name!) of heating and hot water from one compact unit. They don’t require any external tanks or cylinders because they heat water instantaneously on demand.

Read their pros and cons here.

Heat-only boilers

Heat-only boilers, also known as traditional or conventional boilers, are usually fitted to an open-vented system, which require cold water and feed and expansion tanks in the loft. Since they store hot water in a cylinder, they can meet high demand for hot water, and are also perfect for homes with low mains pressure.

Read their pros and cons here.

System boilers

System boilers operate on a sealed system. So they don’t have tanks in the loft, but they do store hot water in a cylinder. As with heat-only boilers, this makes them well suited to homes with a high demand for water.

Read their pros and cons here.

Understanding boiler specifications

Now let’s look at some of the key terms you may come across in a boiler specification:

Understanding boiler specifications: DHW

DHW stands for Domestic Hot Water. This refers to the water that comes from a hot tap or is stored in a hot water cylinder (with a heat-only or system boiler).

With a combi boiler, the central heating and DHW are combined into one appliance. When you turn on a hot tap, a combi boiler prioritises the DHW, and stops pumping water to the heating circuit.

Understanding boiler specifications: CH output

CH stands for central heating. As well as providing your hot water for your taps and showers, your boiler also heats your home. It does this by heating water which is pumped around your radiators, before returning to the boiler for reheating.

Understanding boiler specifications: Boiler efficiency (ErP)

A jar full of coins with a green shoot.Thanks to legislation from the EU, all new boilers up to 400kW come with an ErP rating.

ErP stands for Energy-Related Products. It is a rating system which rates an appliance’s energy efficiency from A-G, with A-rated products being the most efficient.

You’ll also see this rating system on other household appliances, such as your fridge, washing machine and oven.

Combi boilers have two ErP ratings, one for heating your home, and one for heating water for your hot taps. This is because combi boilers power your central heating and hot water independently.

If you have a heat-only or a system boiler, you’ll just have one ErP rating for heating.

The purpose of ErP ratings

The purpose of the ErP rating system is to ensure that consumers are aware of how energy efficient (or not!) their appliances are.

In turn, this helps governments to reduce carbon emissions, while helping homeowners to reduce their energy bills.

All new boilers must be 92% efficient (or ‘A-Rated’ on the ErP label).

If you’re upgrading from a boiler with a lower efficiency rating, you’ll save money on your energy bills each year because efficient boilers waste less energy.

To find out more about this, you should check out our related blogs: What is an efficient boiler, and why should I want one? and What is Boiler Plus?

According to the Energy Saving Trust, if you swap a D-rated gas boiler to an A-rated condensing gas boiler, you could save around £170 a year on your central heating bill. The savings will be even greater if swapping from G-rated boiler to an A-rated one.

And, with gas prices soaring, the savings are likely to be substantially higher than that now!

Understanding boiler specifications: SEDBUK

Although SEDBUK was effectively replaced by the Energy related Products (ErP) directive in 2015, you’ll often still see SEDBUK appearing on boiler specifications.

SEDBUK stands for: ‘Seasonal Efficiency of Domestic Boilers in the UK’. SEDBUK was a UK initiative which provided a basis for fair comparison of the energy efficiency of different models of boilers.

The SEDBUK scale labelled boilers with a letter from A – G, with A being the most efficient boilers.

On the SEDBUK scale, boilers classed as A and B were highly efficient, whilst bands C to G were classed as having ‘standard efficiency’.

Understanding boiler specifications: Boiler power (kWs)

A boiler next to a boy dressed as a superhero.Another key boiler specification you need to be aware of is boiler power.

This can be confusing, because you’re more likely to have heard of people referring to boiler power as boiler ‘size’.

But when we’re talking about a boiler’s ‘size’, we’re not talking about its physical dimensions, but rather, its power.

Boiler power is measured in kilowatts (kW). The more power the boiler can generate in kWs, the bigger it is in terms of ‘size’.

At its simplest, a more powerful (or ‘bigger’) boiler will be able to heat more radiators and provide more hot water. But this doesn’t mean that bigger is always better!

Many people fall into the trap of choosing a boiler that’s too big (or too powerful) for their needs, thinking that it’s better to have too much power, than too little.

The problem with oversizing boilers

Worcester Bosch Greenstar 8000 next to a ruler and a question mark.But oversizing your boiler is an expensive mistake because it leads to ‘boiler cycling’ and excessively high heating bills.

But too little power isn’t good either, because your boiler will struggle to provide enough heating and hot water for your needs.

So, you need to choose a boiler that’s power output can precisely meet your requirements. Whilst a lot of online ‘calculators’ say you can do this by counting your radiators – and this really grinds our gears! – this isn’t true.

The accurate way to size a boiler (and industry standard under Part L of the Energy Efficiency Regulations) is through a heat-loss calculation.

Rest assured, that The Heating People conduct heat-loss calculations as standard as part of your free survey. We will calculate and recommend the correct size of boiler for your home.

But so that you can understand this better, let’s look at what the Kw numbers mean…

What the numbers on the specification mean…

A diagram showing boiler input and output.When looking at a boiler specification, you might see two numbers by boiler power. One is the power input; the other is power output.

Both are measured in kW and, depending on the boiler type, can refer to just your central heating (CH) or both your heating and your domestic hot water (DHW).

Input refers to how much energy goes into the boiler to make it work, and it’ll be reflected in your energy bill.

Output tells you how much of that energy is converted into heat for your radiators and hot water for your taps. This number will always be lower than the input because no boiler is 100% efficient. Some energy will be lost in the heating process.

What is a kW?

A kilowatt is a measure of power, equal to 1,000 watts. Watts measure power generated per second.

So, a boiler with a maximum output of 30kW will produce 30,000 joules of energy per second when in operation. This energy is used to heat your home.

The higher the kW rating of a boiler, the more powerful it is, and the more radiators and taps it can supply at one time.

Why do combi boilers have higher power outputs?

You may notice that combi boilers often have larger power outputs than heat-only or system boilers. This is because combi boilers operate differently, by heating water instantly on demand.

Heat-only and system boilers don’t have to heat water instantly, they can heat it up more slowly because they store it in a cylinder for later use.

What is a kilowatt-hour (kWh)?

You might have come across kilowatt-hours on your energy bill, and be wondering how this differs from a kilowatt.

A kilowatt (kW) is a measurement of power. A kilowatt hour (kWh) measures how much energy an appliance could use if it was on for one hour.

For example, a 30 kW boiler needs 30 kWh of energy for each hour that it’s heating your home. So, if it’s operating for 3 hours then it will use 90 kWh of energy to do its job.

Understanding boiler specifications: Boiler modulation

A diagram showing boiler modulation.You’ll see some specifications talking about boiler modulation. But unless you’re in the heating industry, this probably won’t mean much to you!

So, what does boiler modulation mean, and why is it important?

Boiler modulation refers to the ability of the boiler to automatically reduce its output to suit the demand for heat.

Let’s say you only need 15 kw of heat for your home for the next couple of hours. But you have a 30kw boiler.

Instead of your boiler outputting 30kw and then cycling on and off, your boiler would reduce its output by turning down its flame by 50%.

The advantage to this is that it lowers the amount of gas being used by your boiler. This saves energy, and therefore money on your energy bills.

It also creates a more consistent environment and helps to prolong the life of your boiler by preventing on/off cycling.

What are modulation ratios?

Diagram showing boiler modulation ratios.Boiler manufacturers state the ability of a boiler to modulate as a modulation ratio.

The fraction refers to a boiler’s minimum output in relation to its maximum output. The wider the modulation range, the better the ratio.

Let’s look at some examples to help explain this:

Boiler A

Boiler A has a maximum output of 30kW and has a 5:1 ratio. This means that the maximum power it can output to heat your home is 30kW, and it can modulate this down to 6kW.

Boiler B

Boiler B has a maximum power output of 30kW and a 10:1 ratio. This means that the maximum power it can output to your home is 30kW, and it can modulate this down to 3 kW.

Boiler C

Boiler C has a maximum output of 30kW and an extremely impressive 17:1 ratio. This means that the maximum power it can output to your home is 30kW, and it can modulate this down to 1.7 kW.

So, which of the boilers in our examples is the most efficient?

Boiler C is the most efficient boiler because it can modulate its output from 30kW to 1.7kW with a total of 17 different heat outputs.

Lower power output means less fuel burned, and more money saved on your bills.

To put this in perspective… If you only need a very small increase in heat, Boiler A would fire at 6Kw, but Boiler C would fire at a lower (and more efficient) 1.7Kw.

A non-modulating boiler would fire at its maximum output of 30Kw regardless of the heat demand, consuming unnecessary energy and overheating the home.

Another advantage is that there will be less boiler cycling, and so there will be a lower level of stress placed upon the boiler, potentially extending its lifespan.

If you’re interested in boiler modulation, you might also be interested in our related article on the benefits of low temperature heating.

Understanding boiler specifications: Water flow rate

An important feature specific to combi boilers, is the water flow rate.

Measured in litres per minute, the water flow rate shows how much hot water your boiler can send to your taps in one minute.

Sometimes the output specifications for a boiler will state the maximum flow rate that the boiler can provide at a specific temperature. For example, you might see a flow rate of 15 l/min at a temperature of 40 degrees centigrade.

Generally, the more taps and showers you have in your home, the higher water flow rate you need.

However, you could be wasting your money if you choose the boiler with the maximum flow rate, if the mains supply to your house is lower than the flow rate of the boiler.

If you were to buy a boiler with a flow rate of 12 litres per minute (l/min), but the flow rate of your mains water is only 8l/min, your boiler won’t be able to reach 12 l/min.

If your mains water isn’t coming in fast, it won’t come out of your tap fast either!

Understanding boiler specifications: Pressure

Technical specifications for boilers often include figures related to gas and water pressure, and are typically measured in bars.

‘Minimum inlet pressure’ describes the lowest pressure required for gas entering the boiler in order for your boiler to operate safely and efficiently.

There also might be a minimum and maximum rate for water pressure.


A boiler is a big investment, and you’ll want to get it right. After all, it’s going to be tasked with keeping you and your family warm and comfortable for at least the next decade!

So, we hope that reading this guide has left you feeling better equipped to research your new boiler.

But if you still feel overwhelmed, don’t worry, The Heating People are here to help!  Contact one of our friendly team to set up a free, no obligation appointment with one of our heating specialists.

They’ll visit your home, complete a survey, then talk through your options and answer any questions.

Useful links:

Heat Geek: What is boiler modulation?


Replacing a heat-only boiler with a combi

A man thinking a bout a combi boiler.Thinking of replacing a heat-only boiler with a combi?

If your existing heat-only or regular boiler is getting old; or is on the blink; you might be considering switching to a combi boiler.

But changing to a combi can be daunting if you’ve never had one before.

It can feel tempting to just replace like-for-like, rather than stepping into the unknown. Particularly if you’ve always had a particular type of boiler.

But there might be a much better suited boiler for your home.

So, when it’s time to replace your boiler; you should ask yourself whether your lifestyle has changed over the last decade. And whether a different sort of boiler might be a better fit for you now.

If you’re wondering whether to change from a heat-only boiler to a combi, this guide will help! We look at the main benefits and drawbacks of making such a switch, to help you with your decision.

For tailored advice, contact one of our friendly team at The Heating People to book your free survey.

Your existing heat-only system

Diagram of a heat-only boiler system.First off, it’s important to establish what your existing heating system is, and what you’re looking for.

This can be a bit confusing, because heat-only boilers are also referred to as ‘regular boilers’ and ‘conventional boilers’. But whichever name is used, we’re talking about the same heating system.

We prefer to call them heat-only boilers. Because they produce hot water for your central heating; but use a separate hot water cylinder to produce hot water for your taps; baths; and showers.

What is a heat-only boiler?

Heat-only boilers are often thought of as the traditional way of heating a home. And out of the three types of boiler available (heat-only, system and combi) they take up the most space.

If you currently have a heat-only boiler; you’ll have noticed the hot water cylinder, which is usually placed in an airing cupboard.

But you might not have seen that there is also a cold water cistern (sometimes called a header tank); and a small feed and expansion tank in your attic or loft space.

These components work together to provide you with heating and hot water.

The cold-water cistern is provided with water from the mains. With the help of gravity, this cold water is fed down to your cylinder.

Your boiler heats this water;, and the cylinder stores it until it’s needed by your radiators, taps or showers.

The feed and expansion tank is used to keep the water in your heating system at the correct level. It allows for the water expansion when the heating is switched on.

What are the main advantages of a heat-only boiler?

A woman looking at a diagram of a heat-only boiler.Since heat-only boilers store large quantities of hot water in a cylinder; they can meet a high demand for hot water.

This makes them a great choice for larger homes with multiple bathrooms. Or homes where family members all want to use the hot water at the same time.

Heat-only boilers also work well in areas that suffer from low pressure. And they’re compatible with renewable technologies, such as solar – which are vital in our ambition to meet Net Zero.

And if you’re someone who worries about being in the dreaded no-hot-water situation; heat-only boilers can be fitted with an additional immersion heater. This will heat your water in the event of a break-down.

What are the drawbacks to having a heat-only boiler?

If you’re thinking about switching to a combi boiler, you’re probably already aware of the drawbacks of a heat-only boiler.

As we’ve mentioned, heat-only boilers take up a lot of space in your home; because of their additional cold water tanks and cylinders.

And since heat-only boilers store hot water, their ability to supply it is limited by the size of the cylinder.

You might have encountered this problem if you’ve used a lot of hot water in one go. If you completely empty the cylinder, you’ll temporarily run out of hot water until the boiler heats up some more.

The other drawback is that heat-only boilers tend to be the least efficient of all the boiler types. This is because they have the fewest control options, and will experience some heat loss from the hot water cylinder.

To read more about the pros and cons of heat-only boilers, check out our related blog here.

Now let’s take a look at your combi alternative…

How does a combi boiler work?

Diagram of a combi boilerCombi boilers are currently the most popular type of domestic boiler installed in the UK. We’ve dedicated a whole blog to what they are, which you can read in full here.

But in a nutshell…

A combi boiler provides a ‘combination’ of heating and hot water from one compact appliance; without the need for any external tanks or cylinders.

This differentiates them from system boilers, which require a hot water cylinder; and from heat-only boilers, which require a hot water cylinder and two cold water storage tanks.

Combi boilers don’t need hot water cylinders because they heat water instantly when you turn on a tap; so they don’t need to store it.

They don’t need cold water tanks because (like a system boiler); they take their cold water directly from the mains supply.

What are the benefits of installing a combi boiler?

A woman looking ay a diagram of a combi boiler system.Combi boilers are very popular in the UK because they offer a lot of benefits:

Combi boilers are space saving

If you’re switching from a heat-only boiler to a combi; you’ll save tons of space because you can get rid of the hot water cylinder in your airing cupboard; and the cold water tanks in your loft.

This frees up storage space that you wouldn’t otherwise have had; and is appealing to smaller homes where space is at a premium.

You’ll also find plenty of boiler manufacturers who offer compact combi boilers that will even fit inside a kitchen cupboard!

Combi boilers are energy efficient

Thanks to the Boiler Plus Regulations, and improvements in our heating technology; all boilers are much more efficient than they used to be.

The Energy Saving Trust estimates says you can save £340 a year on your gas bill; by trading in an old-style non-condensing boiler; for a new condensing one.

But combi boilers may be more energy efficient in some cases compared to heat-only boilers.

Unlike heat-only boilers; combis heat water on demand, so you never pay to heat more water than you actually use.

With a heat-only boiler (which stores hot water), hot water tends to be produced twice a day; even if you don’t use it. If it doesn’t get used, this hot water cools down, wasting energy.

And as we mentioned above; if you have a heat-only boiler, you’ll also inevitably experience some heat loss from the hot water cylinder. Again, this is wasted energy, which is not an issue with a combi boiler.

 Combi boilers never run out of hot water

If you’ve currently got a heat-only boiler; you might have had occasions where you’ve used all of the hot water in the cylinder; and have had to wait for it to refill.

This can be frustrating and can lead to family arguments over who used the last of it!

But this simply isn’t an issue with a combi. With no water cylinder to heat up, combi boilers can provide an unlimited supply of hot water on demand.

Since a combi heats water instantly when you turn on a tap, you’ll never run out of hot water again!

The drawbacks of installing a combi boiler

Whilst there are plenty of advantages to installing a combi, they’re not for everyone. Sometimes a new heat-only boiler or a new system boiler is a better choice.

Combi boilers struggle to meet high demands for hot water

It sounds counterintuitive to say that a combi will never run out of hot water; and then say that it can’t meet high demands for hot water – but stay with us!

A combi can’t run out of hot water because it heats it instantly when you turn on a tap. Unlike with a heat-only boiler, there is no cylinder that will eventually empty.

But because a combi heats the water instantly when you turn on a tap; it will struggle if you turn on multiple taps at the same time.

Most combi boilers provide between 9 – 16 litres per minute. Whatever the capacity, it will be halved if two hot water outlets are in use at the same time; i.e. to around 8 litres per minute at best.

This means that combi boilers are best suited to homes with relatively small hot water demands at any one time.

If people in your household all want to shower at the same time; a combi boiler may struggle to keep up with your demand.

In larger homes with multiple bathrooms, a heat-only or a system boiler would be a better choice.

You can read more about the pros and cons of combi boilers here.

What’s involved in replacing a heat-only boiler with a combi?

If you’ve decided that you want to switch to a combi, you may be wondering what’s involved. So, we’ve summarised the steps that The Heating People engineers will take: 


  • Arrival of your engineer – when your heating engineer arrives to install your new boiler; they will discuss the planned work, to ensure that everyone is happy. They will explain where they will need access to, and for how long, so that you can plan your day.
  • Preparation of the area – your engineer will put down floor coverings in all work areas and transit routes. So you can rest assured that your carpets will be protected from any debris.
  • Draining the heating system – your engineer will need to drain your heating system before they can begin.
  • Removal of your old existing boiler – your engineer will remove your old boiler; flue; cylinder and tanks; as well as any controls that won’t work with your new combi.
  • Flush and clean – Depending on what was discussed during the quotation stage; your engineer will use the flushing method agreed upon. This ensures that your heating system is clean for your new boiler.


  • Alteration of pipework – your engineer will alter your heating pipework to suit your new combi boiler. The Heating People only use quality products. We’ll only use copper or professional press fit systems, we don’t use DIY style push-fit systems.
  • Routing of hot and cold pipework – your engineer will route your new hot and cold pipework from an existing point on your heating system; to your new boiler. 
  • Upgrading of the gas pipe – when changing to a combi boiler; it’s often necessary to upgrade the gas pipe to a larger one. This is because combi boilers require more power to heat the hot water. Where necessary, your engineer will do this.
  • Installation of condensate pipe – If your old boiler was standard efficiency, your engineer will need to install a condensate pipe. This pipe will transfer the wastewater that gets produced by your new condensing boiler, into a sewer.
  • Installation of the new boiler and the flue – your engineer will install your new boiler and flue. This is usually in the same position as your old boiler, but other locations are possible.
  • Connection of the pipework – your engineer will connect all of the pipework to your new boiler.
  • Wiring and controls – your engineer will complete the wiring and will install the controls for your new boiler.
  • Safety checks – your engineer will conduct safety checks and commissioning checks for your new boiler.

Completion and handover

  • Paperwork – your engineer will fill in all of the paperwork for your new boiler. They will fill out all commissioning test results in your benchmark log book.
  • Tidy up – The Heating People will leave your home as clean and tidy as they found it! They will remove and dispose of your old boiler and any redundant parts.
  • Handover – Your engineer will then complete a handover with you when all the work is complete. This ensures that you are as informed as possible on how to operate the boiler; how to use all the controls; and how to get the best efficiency from your system.
  • Registration of your new boiler – After installing your new boiler, we register it with the manufacturers to activate its guarantee; and notify your local building control via the Gas Safe Register. We offer guarantees of up to 14 years on our boilers, for your peace of mind.

How long will it take to replace a heat-only boiler with a combi?

It generally takes 2-3 days on site to change from a heat-only to a combi boiler; depending on the work required.

How much will it cost to change from a heat-only boiler to a combi? 

The price of replacing a boiler costs less than you might think. It obviously depends on what you are changing from, and what you are changing to.

But as a rough guide, at The Heating People:

  • Replacing an existing combi boiler with a new combi boiler will cost between £1800-3000.
  • Upgrading from a heat-only boiler to a combi boiler will cost between £2200-£3500.
  • Swapping a heat-only boiler with a new heat-only boiler will cost between £1800-3000.
  • Replacing a heat-only to a system boiler will cost between £1800-3000.
  • Swapping a system boiler with a new system boiler will cost between £1800-3000.

Contact The Heating People today to arrange your free quotation.

Which combi boiler should I choose?

If you’ve decided that you want a combi boiler, your next challenge is deciding which one!

This can feel like a daunting task because there are so many manufacturers all offering extensive ranges of combi boilers in different sizes; with different key features and benefits.

Our best advice here is to choose an expert Gas Safe installer that you can trust. We’re going to make a bold claim here – your choice of installer is more important than your choice of boiler!

Many people take for granted the fact that your engineer is the number one contributor to your heating system’s efficiency. And as such, your engineer should be your first port of call in finding your perfect boiler.

The right engineer will calculate and recommend the best makes and models for your needs.

The Heating People conduct heat loss calculations as standard to correctly size your boiler. And will make recommendations on models that meet your requirements.

We only use products from manufacturers that offer outstanding engineering and reliability. Because of this, we can offer guarantees of up to 14 years on our boilers, for your peace of mind.

Final thoughts…

We hope you’ve found this guide useful in helping you to decide whether switching from a heat-only to a combi boiler sounds like a good option for you.

It ultimately depends on how you use your hot water at home.

If you have a large household that wants to use hot water simultaneously, a heat-only or system boiler will be your best option.

But if you don’t need to use multiple outlets at the same time, a combi could be a more efficient and space saving option.

For tailored advice, contact The Heating People to book your free survey.

You might also like to read our related blog: 6 Top Tips for buying a new boiler.

Useful links

Energy Saving Trust: Boilers


8 Interesting Heating Facts

A woman carrying a pile of books.8 Interesting heating facts… Yep, we did say interesting.

Ok, ok – we know that unless you’re in the industry, heating might not seem all that interesting. But we’re here to tell you otherwise!

At The Heating People, we’re total heat geeks and love everything heating related.

Whilst you might not immediately think of heating as an exciting topic of conversation; we’ve certainly come to rely on it to keep our families warm and safe.

And home heating has come a long way from the campfires of early man.

So, we’re sharing 8 interesting heating facts that might help you to save some money; or maybe even win some in a quiz one day!

Interesting Heating Fact 1: The Romans invented the first central heating system

To borrow a line from Monty Python, “Apart from sanitation; medicine; education; wine; public order; irrigation; roads; a fresh water system; and public health, what have the Romans ever done for us?”

We could add – invented the first central heating system to the list!

Up until this point, we only knew how to heat a single room at a time using a fire.

The Roman Empire invented the first central heating system called a “hypocaust”. The hypocaust was a system that circulated hot air under the floor and surrounding walls – in the absence of radiators!

Roman buildings with a hypocaust were built on pillars and the floors and walls had spaces in them. Fires were lit below the buildings; allowing the heat to flow through the space in the floors and walls; and out through flues in the roof.

The use of flues to ensure that hot air and smoke didn’t leak into the home was quite a feat of engineering; considering the materials used at the time.

As you might imagine; running a hypocaust wasn’t cheap. So only the very well-off could afford to have them in their homes.

But most Romans could still experience the heating system by visiting the hot Roman baths; where walls and floors were heated.

Interesting Heating Fact 2 –  The first radiator was known as ‘the hot-box’

Mr Franz San Galli, a Polish-born, Russian inventor; has been credited with inventing the first heating radiator – famously calling it a ‘hot-box’.

The hot box was made up of large columns of steel with waterways inside. These allowed for hot water to pass through and heat air which in turn heated up the room. This was a revolution in central heating, and was launched in St Petersburg.

But there is some debate about whether the hot box was the very first radiator. Because there were other similar ‘heat distributors’ being developed around the same time.

One of which was the so-called ‘mattress radiator’ from an American inventor called Stephen Gold in 1854.

But these very early radiators paved the way for the ‘Bundy Loop’ designed by Nelson H. Bundy in 1872. The Bundy Loop was a cast iron radiator that had loops which were screwed into a cast iron base; and it also came in a circular version.

Other manufacturers quickly replicated the design, adding their own features. But the Bundy Loop can still be seen in the various different radiators styles seen today.

Interesting Heating Fact 3 – Vaillant invented the first combi boiler

So, the Romans came up with the first central heating system. And the Russians and Americans invented the first radiators. Us Brits must have come up with the first combi boiler, right?

Nope. We’ve got German manufacturer, Vaillant to thank for that!

In 1967 Vaillant invented the first combined heating and hot water boiler – the Combi-Geyser VCW 20.

This was the first time that heating and hot water could be produced from a single, compact unit. Prior to importing the first combi boilers from Europe; us Brits were using open vented central heating systems with stored hot water in a separate cylinder.

The combi boiler is now the most popular type of boiler sold in the UK domestic market. You can read about their pros and cons here.

Interesting Heating Fact 4 – Radiators heat our homes by convection

Despite their misleading name, radiators heat our homes via convection, rather than radiation.

If you remember your school science lessons, you’ll know that heat can be transferred in three ways: by conduction, by convection, and by radiation.

Conduction is the transfer of energy from one molecule to another by direct contact. And incidentally, it’s this process that means that your home suffers heat loss.

This is because the second rule of thermodynamics means that when an object is at a different temperature from another body or its surroundings, heat flows to reach a thermal equilibrium.

So, in other words, the warm air in your home will always move towards the cold air outside. And this is why we do heat loss calculations to find your new boiler!

Convection is the movement of heat by a fluid such as water or air. The fluid (liquid or gas) moves from one location to another, transferring heat along with it.

Radiation is the transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves. Unlike conduction or convection, heat transfer by radiation doesn’t need any matter to help with the transfer.

If you think about your radiators then, it’s clear that they transfer heat to your rooms by convection.

Your boiler pumps heated water through the pipes in your central heating system, to your radiators. Radiators then transfer the heat from the water to the air in your rooms through convection.

When water in the radiator is heated, the surrounding air is also heated up via convection and this hot air is then moved around the room as the air circulates.

Interesting Heating Fact 5 – Turning up your thermostat won’t heat your home any faster

If you’ve read our blog: 7 Central Heating Myths Debunked, you’ll know that a whopping 52% of people mistakenly believe that turning up their thermostat when they’re cold will make their rooms heat up faster. But as we said, this is a myth!

Thermostats don’t control the speed at which your house heats up, all they do is set the maximum temperature that you want your room to be.

So, if you come home to a really cold house, and then turn your thermostat up to 27 degrees, your rooms will still heat up at precisely the same speed they would have if you’d set the thermostat to 21 degrees.

You’ll just end up overshooting the temperature you actually wanted, and will have wasted energy (and therefore money) overheating your home.

And a bonus thermostat fact… if you turn your thermostat down by just 1 degree, you can save up to 10% on your heating bills.

Interesting Heating Fact 6 – Insulation is vital!

Diagram showing high U-valuesThe key to keeping your home as warm as possible, and your energy bills as low as possible, is insulation!

But unfortunately, according to the Climate Change Committee, our housing stock is one of the oldest and worst insulated in Europe, with 38% of our homes pre-dating 1946.

Poorly insulated homes lose their heat quicker (due to the second rule of thermodynamics that we mentioned earlier!) and it therefore takes more energy and more money to keep them warm.

According to the Energy Saving Trust, the following estimates indicate the proportionate heat loss from a badly insulated house: 25% through the roof; 35% through outside walls; 25% through doors and windows; and 15% can be lost through ground floors.

These figures illustrate how insulation is one of the best investments in your home you can make. Your reduced fuel bills will cover the initial outlay time and time again.

Interesting Heating Fact 7 – Heating and hot water accounts for about 55% of your energy bills

According to the Energy Saving Trust (2020), heating and hot water accounts for approximately 55% of your household’s energy bills.

With the average home’s energy bill being about £1,287 per year (which is set to rise thanks to the gas fuel crisis) it’s easy to see the importance of having an energy efficient boiler.

According to The Energy Saving Trust, you could save as much as £340 a year on your gas bill if you’re trading in an old-style non-condensing boiler for a new condensing one.

And you’ll also reduce your carbon emissions too, which is vital if we’re to meet our national ambition of achieving net zero by 2050. 

If you’re worried about the future of gas boilers, you should check out our related blogs: The Truth about the ‘Boiler Ban’ – spoiler: Yours won’t be evicted! And What are heat pumps?

Interesting Heating Fact 8 – 1 in 5 boiler breakdowns are due to inadequate maintenance

According to Which? 1 in 5 boiler breakdowns is due to inadequate boiler maintenance, or in other words, not booking in for that annual service.

In their 2021 boiler reliability survey, Which? found that only around three in ten boilers that are serviced annually have needed a repair in their first six years. This doubles to around six in ten boilers if the boiler is only serviced every two to five years.

But getting your boiler serviced regularly isn’t just about avoiding breakdowns, it’s about safety too.

Boilers have built in safety features to ensure correct operation, but over time, these can wear down, and leave your boiler in an unsafe condition.

Unsafe gas appliances pose risk of gas leaks; fires and explosions, and carbon monoxide poisoning.

Despite this, a survey by the Gas Safe Register found that 24% of homeowners have either never had their boiler serviced or haven’t had it serviced once a year as recommended.

Don’t take the risk! Get your boiler serviced annually by a Gas Safe engineer.

Final thoughts…

We hope you’ve found out something you didn’t know about heating!

If you want tailored advice on improving your home heating, contact us today to book your free survey.

Useful links:

Britannica: The Hypocaust

Vita-Romae: The hypocaust system

The Climate Change Committee report on UK housing stock

Energy Saving Trust: Heating your home

Which? Boiler servicing


What is Power Flushing?

Before and after a power flush.What is power flushing?

Our heating systems are vital for keeping us warm and safe all year round. And to do this effectively, they need to be clean.

Over time, the water in your pipes, boiler and radiators deposits unwanted by-products like rust.

This rust (plus other dirt and debris) becomes an unpleasant, muddy substance, known as ‘sludge’.

This sludge plays havoc with the efficiency of your heating system, causing corrosion and blockages.

A report by the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) in February 2021 found that the build-up of sludge can reduce the efficiency of central heating systems by by 15%.

This means that your heating system can’t perform like it used to, and you might start to notice your radiators getting colder.

It can also damage individual parts of your heating system, leading to breakdowns, and can eventually lead to the need for a full boiler replacement in the most severe cases.

Fortunately, there’s a simple way to avert all these sludge-induced problems – a power flush.

A power flush is a cleansing process which cleans your entire central heating system, removing the sludge, which would otherwise cause damage and reduce efficiency. 

So if you’ve been having problems with cold radiators lately, read on!

Do I need a power flush?

Since a power flush deals with problems that you can’t even see, you might be wondering how you know if you need one.

Here are a few tell-tale signs to look out for:

Sign you need a power flush: Unexplained increases in your energy bills

A man emptying a piggy bank.If you’ve noticed that your energy bills are creeping up, this could signal that your heating system is not working as efficiently as it used to.

A possible cause of this, is that over time, sludge, rust and limescale has built up in your heating system.

Your boiler then must work harder, and burn more energy, to try and get hot water through blocked pipes, and past leaks.

Unfortunately, you might be noticing this reduction in efficiency in your wallet. But a power flush might be a simple fix for this.

Sign you need a power flush: Cold spots on your radiators

Are your radiators taking forever to warm up? Or have you noticed cold spots on them?

If the pipes are hot but your radiator’s cold, this could indicate a blockage.

In this state the heating system burns a lot more fuel as it struggles to heat the home.

If your radiators are stone cold all over (not just in spots) then corrosion debris may be blocking radiator pipes and the sooner the system is power flushed the better before blockages become permanent and need to be cut out.

Sign you need a power flush: issues when you bleed your radiators

If when you bleed your radiators, the water is discoloured, or no water escapes at all, this may also signal the need for a power flush.

Sign you need a power flush: Your hot water is unreliable

A sad woman with a towel on her head.If you’re finding that your hot water is fluctuating between hot and cold, or the water flow is reduced to a trickle, this could indicate problems such as corrosion in the heat exchanger, and limescale in the pipes.

Sign you need a power flush: Excessive noise

All heating systems will make some noise. But if you notice a new or unusual sound, such as a banging or knocking sound, this could be a sign that a power flush is needed.

Boilers make loud banging noises called “kettling” because corrosion debris blocks and damages the heat exchanger. Blockages reduce circulation causing boilers to overheat and cut out.

Boilers can also make a whistling noise as parts of it overheat or cycle on and off as the overheat stat continually cuts in.

A cold couple sitting by a radiator.

Sign you need a power flush: Boiler breakdowns

A mucky boiler and pump causes breakdowns. Evidence suggests that as many as 87% of boiler breakdowns are due to dirty water in your heating system, and this can be avoided by keeping your system clean.

What happens during a power flush?

If you think you might need a power flush, you might be wondering what’s involved.

During a power flush your engineer will connect a pump to your central heating system.

This pump will push chemicals and a descaler through the pipes, boiler and radiators at a high pressure. These chemicals remove sludge, rust, and limescale.

They will also use a corrosion inhibitor to help prevent future rust from forming. The engineer will collect and dispose of any contaminated water, debris or particles that they remove from the system.

Depending on the condition of the system, your Gas Safe engineer may also use special tools on the exterior of the radiator to dislodge stubborn blockages.

They should be able to measure the temperature of your radiators before they have started work and then show you the improvement after the power flush.

How long does a Power Flush take?

The length of time needed for a Power flush typically depends on your system’s size and condition, but it usually takes about a day.

What are the benefits of a power flush?

Here is what you stand to gain from having a power flush:

  • More efficient, hotter radiators
  • Greater energy efficiency and lower energy bills
  • Reduction in noise caused by blockages
  • Boost your heating system’s lifespan
  • Prevent costly breakdowns
  • Improved system reliability
  • Maintain boiler warranty

How often will I need a Power flush?

If you’re installing a new boiler, it may be necessary to flush your system to ensure that your new boiler can heat your home effectively, and won’t be damaged by sludge that is already in your radiators and pipes.

After all, there’s not much point installing a new efficient boiler if you’re connecting it to an absolute mess of blocked and corroded pipes.

The Heating People will be able to advise you on this.

If your system is correctly maintained, then a power flush should only be necessary once every 5 years.

As part of your annual boiler service, The Heating People will perform a visual inspection of your central heating system. They’ll identify any problem areas where corrosion has occurred, and will tell you whether a Power flush is necessary to remove any blockages.

Is a power flush messy?

No, a Power flush isn’t messy because it’s confined to your current heating system. Your engineer will just need to connect their power flush machine to the heating system at a convenient point and they’ll use a suitable drain to dispose of the waste water.

I have an old heating system – can a power flush cause a leak?

No. Power Flushing machines are designed so that there is no increase in pressure in your system. It is a high flow rate that makes power flushing effective, not high pressure.

Occasionally, an old heating system may have radiators with holes that are just holding together with rust. The Power flush may dislodge the rust, leading to a leak from the radiator. But this leak would occur imminently even without a power flush.

If a problem is revealed by the flushing process, it is better that it occurs whilst a heating engineer is present to remedy the problem, preventing an emergency situation.

Can pressure from a power flushing pump damage the boiler or heating system?

No. A power flushing machine does not increase the pressure in the system; it works using high flow rates and therefore won’t over-pressurise and damage the internals of a boiler.

How much does a Power flush cost?

There are lots of factors that will affect the price of a power flush such as size and complexity of your heating system, and whether any other issues or faults come to light.

As a guide, a Power Flush with The Heating People will cost approximately £400.

Useful Links

BEIS report

BEIS energy efficiency statistics Feb 2021

Which? Reviews on reducing energy bills


What are hydrogen boilers?

Worcester Bosch hydrogen ready boilerWhat are hydrogen boilers? Even prior to COP26 last month, the news has been full of talk about how the UK will meet its ambitious climate change target of achieving net zero by 2050.

From electric cars; jet-zero; carbon-trading; heat-pumps; and hydrogen boilers – it’s not easy to keep up with what’s going on!

So, you might be wondering about what all of these changes mean for you and your home.

Misleading newspaper headlines have been worrying people that they’ll soon need to fork out for a hydrogen boiler or a heat-pump because their gas boiler has been ‘banned’ and is soon to be evicted from their home!

But this isn’t true.

In this blog, we’ll bring you up to speed with what a hydrogen boiler is; why there’s talk of introducing them; and what this means for the future of heating our homes.

Will gas boilers be banned?

In a word, no.

There have been lots of attention-grabbing headlines about gas boilers being ‘banned’ from 2025. But this so-called ‘ban’ actually refers to the government’s plans to prevent all new-build homes from installing gas and oil boilers from 2025. It doesn’t include current housing stock.

Read our related blog: ‘The truth about the ‘The Boiler Ban’, to find out more about this.

According to the government’s recent ‘Heat in Buildings’ strategy, the ambition is that new gas boilers won’t be installed from 2035.

So, unless you buy a new-build house after 2025, the ban will not impact you. Any boiler you buy today will probably use natural gas for all its working lifetime i.e. the next 10 to 15 years. 

From 2035, you won’t be able to get a traditional gas boiler replacement when your old one breaks. 

After gas boilers have eventually been phased out, there will be two main ways of heating your home: either with a heat pump or a boiler that runs on hydrogen gas.

We’ve written a related blog on what heat-pumps are, but today we’re putting hydrogen boilers under the spotlight.

Why do we need to switch to heat-pumps and hydrogen boilers?

A hydrogen ready boiler and heat pump.Under the Paris Agreement, the UK has a legal commitment to reach net zero carbon emissions by 2050. By achieving this, we can hopefully limit global warming to 1.5C, and thereby avoid  catastrophic effects of climate change.

Since burning fossil fuels to heat our homes produces a third of our carbon emissions, we ultimately have to move away from using them.

Even though our current boilers are much more efficient than they used to be, heat-pumps and hydrogen boilers are much more environmentally friendly.

But replacing gas boilers is a tricky task because we will need to change lots of infrastructure.

What are our options?

So, we’re likely to see a mix of low-carbon technologies such as air-to-water or ground-to-water heat pumps, heat networks, and potentially switching the natural gas in the grid to low-carbon hydrogen to run hydrogen boilers.

Whilst the government has been clear that it wants to be installing 600,000 heat pumps per year by 2028, the future of hydrogen heating is less clear. 

As set out in the Prime Minister’s Ten Point Plan for a Green Industrial Revolution, the government is aiming for 5GW of low carbon hydrogen production capacity by 2030 for use across the economy. This will be no mean feat since there’s virtually no low carbon hydrogen produced or used currently.

The government has announced that they will ‘explore the potential’ to use hydrogen for heating buildings (using a Hydrogen Village trial) and will make a decision on it in 2026.

So, whilst we’ll look at what hydrogen boilers are; and how they work; it’s important to recognise that as of today, their future is uncertain.

Any changes that do happen will be a step-by-step transition that will happen over many years.

But boiler manufacturers are ready for this. Many are showcasing ‘hydrogen-ready’ prototypes.

What is hydrogen?

The symbol for hydrogen.You might be wondering how hydrogen – which is a gas – is ‘greener’ than our current natural gas

Well, the premise of using hydrogen to fuel our boilers is that it will reduce carbon emissions.

Our traditional boilers burn natural gas, LPG, or oil to create heat.

Unfortunately, when they burn these fuels, they release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases which is responsible for global warming and climate change. 

Hydrogen is different because it’s a clean-burning molecule. When water and hydrogen react to make electricity, they don’t release carbon – the only by-product is water. 

Why haven’t we been using hydrogen before now?

As we’ve mentioned Hydrogen is much ‘greener’ than our natural gas, and it’s also more abundant. It’s about 1,800 times more plentiful than oxygen! So, why haven’t we been using it before now?

Well, unfortunately, Hydrogen needs to be separated from other elements before it can be used.

The two main ways of doing this are by electrolysis or Steam Methane Reforming (SMR). The ‘cleanest’ way is by electrolysis using a renewable energy source.

But at present, 99% of Hydrogen is still made using fossil fuels, usually through a pollution-heavy process.

So, to meet our climate goals, we’ll need to make so-called ‘green Hydrogen’ using electricity from renewable resources, such as wind and solar power.

As you can probably imagine, this is a more expensive and complicated process than just burning the coal we dug out of the ground in days gone by!

How would hydrogen boilers be phased in?

As we’ve mentioned, the government isn’t planning to make any firm decisions on hydrogen heating until 2026, when timescales and technical details will hopefully be ironed out.

But, introducing hydrogen boilers would be likely to happen in three stages:

Stage 1 – Production of hydrogen boilers

The first stage in a transition to hydrogen would involve manufacturing new boilers to be able to run on 100% hydrogen. Currently, there are no 100% hydrogen boilers available, but a few of the bigger boiler manufacturers have created prototypes.

Stage 2 – Introducing a hydrogen-blend of gas

The next stage would be introducing a blend of natural gas and 20% hydrogen into the UK mains supply.

Some manufacturers are describing their newer boilers as being: ‘hydrogen-blend ready’. But this is misleading because virtually all boilers that are already installed in UK homes are!

Nearly all boilers are already able to run on a blend of hydrogen and natural gas. This means that this stage could come in almost instantly, and you probably wouldn’t notice any difference!

The HyDeploy programme at Keele University is testing the effects of using this hydrogen blend. It’s thought that using a blend alone would save approximately 7% in CO2 emissions, so it’s already a step in the right direction.

Stage 3 – Switching to 100% hydrogen

The final stage would be to switch the gas supply from the gas and hydrogen blend to 100% hydrogen. At this stage every new boiler sold in the UK would need to be a hydrogen boiler, and would look very similar to a traditional gas boiler.

What is a hydrogen boiler?

Hydrogen Boilers are very similar to our traditional gas boilers and could provide a like-for-like replacement should we switch the gas network to hydrogen gas.

Hydrogen boilers look virtually identical to gas boilers. Installing them will be a very similar process, as they too would be connected to the mains.

The big difference is, that as well as being able to run on natural gas (which is mostly methane) hydrogen boilers can run on 100% hydrogen.

This is much better for the planet because hydrogen is a carbon-free energy carrier and burning hydrogen for fuel produces no carbon dioxide at the point of use.

How does a hydrogen boiler work?

Hydrogen boilers are similar to traditional gas boilers that we’re familiar with. They’re built and function in much the same way.

Viessmann has a really good article and video on this, which we’ve linked to at the end of this blog. But we’ll summarise here.

Firstly, a hydrogen boiler would take in oxygen and hydrogen. The hydrogen will come from the main gas supply and the oxygen will come from the air.

A catalytic burner ignites a mix of hydrogen and oxygen. This burning of the gases creates hot flue gases which enter the boiler’s heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is surrounded by cold water, which is heated by the hot gas.

The hot water can heat your home and supply hot water to your taps.

This process looks very similar to what happens with a traditional boiler, but the only by-product from burning hydrogen and oxygen is water (rather than carbon dioxide). The condensate pipe takes this water away.

The hot flue gases (hydrogen and oxygen) can also exit the system via the flue along with some NOx emissions as a result of hydrogen combustion.

When will hydrogen boilers be available?

A woman thinkingCurrently, there are no 100% hydrogen boilers available. However, Viessmann, Baxi and Worcester Bosch have produced prototype “hydrogen-ready” boilers capable of burning either natural gas or 100% hydrogen.

Worcester Bosch say their engineers can convert their boiler from natural gas to hydrogen gas in about an hour.

How much would a hydrogen boiler cost?

The simple answer is, we don’t know!

There’s far too much uncertainty around the future of Hydrogen boilers to say. But there’s speculation that they won’t cost much more to buy than a traditional gas boiler.

The real issue is likely to be the running cost, because that could be around 2-4 times more than natural gas. This is why many favour the idea of heat-pumps as the best way to decarbonise our home heating.

What are the advantages of hydrogen boilers?

Let’s take a look at what we stand to gain from switching our traditional boilers to hydrogen ones…

A woman pointing to the symbol for carbon.Emissions from hydrogen boilers contain zero carbon

First and foremost when we’re talking about tackling climate change, is that hydrogen boilers produce no carbon. When you burn hydrogen fuel, all you get is heat and water. This is much more environmentally friendly than burning natural gas, which releases lots of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.


Hydrogen is a renewable energy source

So this is another advantage over burning fossil fuels, which are rapidly running out.

Hydrogen is more efficient than gas

Hydrogen is much more efficient than natural gas. One kg of hydrogen can produce almost the same amount of energy as three kgs of fossil fuels. This means that you’ll need to burn less fuel to heat your home. At the moment that isn’t like to save you money on your energy bills though, because of the current high cost of producing hydrogen. 

Hydrogen boilers can use our existing gas infrastructure

Lots of different boilers.A big advantage of using hydrogen for our heating is that it wouldn’t require any behaviour change from us. A hydrogen boiler would look the same and provide the same delivery of comfort as our traditional boilers.

Some people worry about using a heat-pump (although we think these fears are unfounded!) and this solution would avoid the costs and learning curve of households adopting a completely new heating system.

It could be rolled out quickly across the UK because our existing gas infrastructure would be used to deliver the new hydrogen fuel.

Hydrogen boilers may be better than heat-pumps for homes with high levels of heat loss

A calculator next to a thermal image.There has been much discussion in the media about the need for a ‘Fabric First’ approach before low-temperature heating systems such as heat-pumps can work effectively.

Fabric First refers to the need to have decent insulation in order to reduce heat loss and maximise the efficiency of our heating systems.

Unfortunately, the UK has some of the worst insulated homes in Europe. Whilst we do need to tackle this regardless – this would be less of an immediate problem for a hydrogen boiler.

Compared to other technologies, boilers are a good option in hard-to-heat buildings because of their resilient heat delivery. They’ll be able to deliver consistent performance even in homes with high rates of heat loss.

Hydrogen also offers benefits for the energy system as a whole.

Another bonus of creating a national hydrogen infrastructure is that there could also be  wide-scale use of hydrogen for commercial and heavy transport.

What are the disadvantages of hydrogen boilers?

Unfortunately, there are some concerns about the feasibility of hydrogen heating, but this is under careful scrutiny by the government before any decisions are made…

Hydrogen is not cheap to produce

As we’ve mentioned, hydrogen doesn’t exist in a pure form, it has to be separated from other elements first. To do this in an environmentally friendly way isn’t cheap.

Right now, producing hydrogen is too expensive to be viable to provide nationwide supply. Researchers are investigating more affordable ways to produce hydrogen.

Some methods of producing hydrogen use fossil fuels

As we mentioned earlier, one of the most widely used methods of separating hydrogen for use as a fuel is by Steam Methane Reforming (SMR). This process generates quantities of the greenhouse gases that we wish to avoid. 

The technology isn’t proven yet

While some prototype hydrogen boilers exist, they need to be proven at scale before they can be rolled out. This is why the government has created so-called ‘hydrogen villages’ to test the technology.

Need for enabling infrastructure

Although we can use the existing gas infrastructure to deliver hydrogen, some adaptations will still need to be made.  For example, electronics must be explosion-proof, given the flammability of hydrogen – we’ll get to that! 

Hydrogen is flammable

Hydrogen has the National Fire Protection Association’s highest rating of 4 on the flammability scale. It’s flammable when mixed even in small amounts with ordinary air; and it has a lower ignition energy than gasoline or natural gas. This means it can ignite more easily.

Hydrogen is difficult to store

Due to the differences in flammability and composition, the storage of hydrogen gases is more complicated than with natural gas.

Final thoughts…

What’s clear is that to meet Net Zero virtually all heat in buildings will need to be decarbonised. The government has set the ambition of phasing out the installation of new natural gas boilers from 2035.

Precisely what the future of heating entails, is not yet determined. But it’s likely that it won’t be a one-size-fits-all approach. We’re likely to see a mix of low-carbon technologies being used for heating – perhaps including hydrogen boilers – but we’ll have to wait for the government’s announcement in 2028 to know for sure!

In the meantime, for tailored advice on the best heating sol

Useful links:

Worcester Bosch video on Hydrogen boilers

Viessmann article: How hydrogen boilers work

The government’s 10 Point Plan for a Green Industrial Revolution

The UK’s Hydrogen Strategy